疲れた、、、、

今週末は授業のために下記のようなものを作っておりました。
エドマンド・リーチの「レビ・ストロース」を引用して作った構造主義入門。
本当は色んな絵が書かれているんですが、 ウェブにどう載せるかわからない
ので、途中で変な記号がばらまかれています。

Very Short Introduction to Structuralism
Based on Claude Levi-Strauss (1970) written by Edmund Leach

(A) What is Levi-Strauss’s objective?

He aimed to discover fundamental truths about the nature of human cognition by comparing the details of human culture on a worldwide scale. Therefore, for him, the diachronic study of history and the synchronic study of different cultures are same. His ultimate goal was to find out how all events are parts of a single totality, or structure in human cognition.

(B) What is structuralism? It goes like this:
(1) We perceive the disorderly external world through our senses.
(2) The human brain interprets it as if it consisted of discontinuous segments.
(3) The human brain searches for an appropriate representation of a binary opposition (plus/ minus) and selects a binary pair.
(4) Having set up this polar opposition, the human brain is dissatisfied with the resulting discontinuity, and searches for an intermediate position, not plus/not minus.
(5) It goes back to the external world and chooses something as the immediate signal because the brain is able to perceive it as a discontinuous intermediate segment lying between two poles.
(6) Thus, the final product is a triangle, which is a simplified imitation of a phenomenon of nature as apprehended by the human brain.

-Example: Traffic-Signal Color Triangle
(1) The color spectrum exists in nature as a continuum, and we perceive this continuum through our eyes.
(2) The human brain, however, interprets it as if it consisted of distinct segments of color.
(3) The human brain selects green (plus) and red (minus) as an appropriate representation of a binary pair.
(4) It is not satisfied with the binary pair and looks for an intermediate position, not green/not red.
(5) Then, it goes back to the original natural continuum and chooses yellow as the intermediate signal because yellow is perceived as a segment between green and red.
(6) Thus, we have a three-color triangle (Green—Yellow—Red), which is a simplified imitation of the color spectrum:
Yellow

Green Red
For Levis-Strauss, what we use as the three-color traffic signal is simply transferred from this three-color triangle. The natural structure of the color relations (Green—Yellow—Red) is the same as the logical structure relating the three instructions (Go—Caution—Stop):



High (Change) Yellow
(Caution)
Luminosity
(Continuity)


Low (No Change) Green Red
(Go) (Stop)

Short Long
(Move) (Don’t Move)
Wave Length
(Movement)

The object of this exercise is to find out how relations which exist in nature are used to generate cultural products which incorporate these same relations. His thesis is that by noticing how we apprehend nature, by observing the qualities of the classifications which we use and the way we manipulate the resulting categories, we can find the universals of human cognition that exist only at the level of structure, not at the level of manifest fact.

(C) Where did Levi-Strauss get this idea?

-Levi-Strauss was influenced by the phonemic analysis of a structural linguist, Roman Jacobson. Jacobson claimed that young children gain control of the basic vowels (a, u, i) and consonants (k, p, t) so as to generate meaningful noise patterns in a standardized sequence.
(vowel triangle) (consonant triangle)
a k


u i p t
(1) The child first develops the basic vowel/ consonant opposition by discriminating a contrast in loudness:
Vowel Consonant
(high-energy noise) (low-energy noise)
(loud-compact) (soft-diffuse)
(2) The undifferentiated consonant is then split by discriminating pitch—a low-frequency (grave) component (p) and a high-frequency (acute) component (t).
Grave Acute
(low frequency) (high frequency)
k


p t

(3) The high-energy (compact) velar stop consonant (k) then complements the
undifferentiated high-energy (compact) vowel (a) while the low-energy (diffuse) consonants (p, t) are complemented by corresponding low-energy (diffuse) vowels (u-grave, i-acute). The whole explanation can be represented by a double triangle of consonats and vowels:
PITCH
Grave Acute
Compact (low frequency) (high frequency)
a(k)
LOUDNESS

u(p) I(t)
Diffuse

-Levi-Strauss argued that if all human beings are capable of using a language and conveying information, then, the code in which cultural messages are exppressed must have the same algebric structure. So, just as Jacobson’s vowel-consonant triangles represent the binary oppositions of compact/diffuse and grave/acute which have become internalized into the child’s computer-like mental processes, we can also construct a traffic signal triangle to represent the binary oppositons of high/low (change/ no change) and short/long(go/stop), which are internalized in our cognition.

(D) What does structurism have to do with myth?

-Levi-Strauss argues that myth expresses
(1) unconscious wishes which are inconsistent with conscious experiences, and
(2) an underlying message which is manifest as a whole rather than in any particular myth.

-Therefore, like the analysis of the traffic-signal color triangle,
(1) Myth can be broken up into segments, or individual characters
(2) Individual characters are often interchangeable (like colors and instructions), and sets of relationships among them reveal certain common logics.
(3) Mythology as a whole constitutes a single system (language) and each individual story is a syntagm of that system.


(D) In “Father Christmas Executed,”

(1) how does Levi-Strauss describe the common logics or relationships that can be found among three groups in the three myths:

(Pueblo Indians) (Modern French)

Katchima Synchronic Father Christmas
Comparison
?

Children Adults Children Adults



? Diachronic Comparison


(Medieval French)

Abbe de Lisse



Children Adults

(2) how does “present-giving” mediate the transactions between children and adults?
(3) what is a message as a whole, which underlies these three myths?
(4)What does Levi-Strauss means by saying “pagans prayed to the dead, while Christians prayed for the dead? ” Why does he think that the diachronic transformation from the Abbe de Lisse to Father Christmas indicates an improvement in their relationships with death?
[PR]
by fumiwakamatsu | 2005-10-25 12:21 | 文化人類学
<< 興奮し過ぎ 缶詰 >>